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A scarce sword from a most turbulent era of French history. Used from the era of France's alliance to America in the Revolutionary War of , right through the French Revolution There are several such swords in Smithsonian in America. French participation in North America was initially maritime in nature and marked by some indecision on the part of its military leaders.

In American and French planners organized an attempt to capture Newport, Rhode Island, then under British occupation. The attempt failed, in part because Admiral d'Estaing did not land French troops prior to sailing out of Narragansett Bay to meet the British fleet, and then sailed for Boston after his fleet was damaged in a storm. In , d'Estaing again led his fleet to North America for joint operations, this time against British-held Savannah, Georgia.

About 3, French joined with 2, Americans in the Siege of Savannah, in which a naval bombardment was unsuccessful, and then an attempted assault of the entrenched British position was repulsed with heavy losses. Support became more notable when in ; 6, soldiers led by Rochambeau were landed at Newport, abandoned in by the British, and they established a naval base there.

Rochambeau and Washington met at Wethersfield, Connecticut in May to discuss their options. Washington wanted to drive the British from New York City, and the British force in Virginia, led first by turncoat Benedict Arnold, then by Brigadier William Phillips, and eventually by Charles Cornwallis, was also seen as a potent threat that could be fought with naval assistance.

These two options were dispatched to the Caribbean along with the requested pilots; Rochambeau, in a separate letter, urged de Grasse to come to the Chesapeake Bay for operations in Virginia. De Grasse received these letters in July, at roughly the same time Cornwallis was preparing to occupy Yorktown, Virginia. De Grasse concurred with Rochambeau, and sent back a dispatch indicating that he would reach the Chesapeake at the end of August, but that agreements with the Spanish meant he could only stay until mid-October.

The arrival of his dispatches prompted the Franco-American army to begin a march for Virginia. De Grasse reached the Chesapeake as planned, and disembarked troops to assist Lafayette's army in the blockade of Cornwallis.

The arrival of a British fleet sent to dispute de Grasse's control of the Chesapeake was defeated on September 5 at the Battle of the Chesapeake, and the Newport fleet delivered the French siege train to complete the allied military arrival. The Siege of Yorktown and following surrender by Cornwallis on October 19 were decisive in ending major hostilities in North America. Starting with the Siege of Yorktown, Benjamin Franklin never informed France of the secret negotiations that took place directly between Britain and the United States.

Britain relinquished her rule over the Thirteen Colonies and granted them all the land south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River. However, since France was not included in the American-British peace discussions, the alliance between France and the colonies was broken. Thus the influence of France and Spain in future negotiations was limited.

A 's Brass Hilted Boy's or Midshipman's Sword An interesting boy's or midshipman's sword from the period of the American revolutionary war. Cast brass rococo hilt, with shell guard and knuckle bow. Overall length 36 inches. There is a picture in the gallery by Thomas Rowlandson of a similar sword worn by a young boy officer [midshipman] of the Royal Navy in the 18th century.

In the 18th century there were no regualtions for sword patterns, so a sword such as this would have been perfect and worn by a young junior naval officer. The rank of midshipman originated during the Tudor and Stuart eras, and originally referred to a post for an experienced seaman promoted from the ordinary deck hands, who worked in between the main and mizzen masts and had more responsibility than an ordinary seaman, but was not a military officer or an officer in training.

The first published use of the term midshipman was in The word derives from an area aboard a ship, amidships, but it refers either to the location where midshipmen worked on the ship, or the location where midshipmen were berthed. By the 18th century, four types of midshipman existed: Some midshipmen were older men, and while most were officer candidates who failed to pass the lieutenant examination or were passed over for promotion, some members of the original rating served, as late as , alongside apprentice officers without themselves aspiring to a commission.

By , all midshipmen were considered officer candidates. The everage age of entry in the 18th century was 12, but some of younger age were certainly known of.

With Copper Gilt Hilt A most attractive sword based on the Light Dragoon sbare but slightly shorter for the benefit of an officer that fought on foot. The hilt is beautifully engraved with Union flag shield nd stands of arms, the lion's head pommel and wire bound fishskin grip. The blade has fine engraving with royal cyphers and crest of the king. There is a lot of dark blue remaining and gilt within the engraving.

Old repair to the knucklebow. In untouched condition for likely years. With obvious signs of combat use and wear but a good honest example of an original Peninsular War and Waterloo British infantry officer's sword of the Napoleonic Wars. They revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription.

The wars are traditionally seen as a continuation of the Revolutionary Wars, which broke out in during the French Revolution. Initially, French power rose quickly as the armies of Napoleon conquered much of Europe. In his military career, Napoleon fought about 60 battles and lost seven, mostly at the end. The great French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in Napoleon was defeated in , and then once more in at Waterloo after a brief return to power.

Before a final victory against Napoleon, five of seven coalitions saw defeat at the hands of France. France defeated the first and second coalitions during the French Revolutionary Wars, the third notably at Austerlitz , the fourth notably at Jena, Eylau, and Friedland and the fifth coalition notably at Wagram under the leadership of Napoleon.

These great victories gave the French Army a sense of invulnerability, especially when it approached Moscow. But after the retreat from Russia, in spite of incomplete victories, France was defeated by the sixth coalition at Leipzig, in the Peninsular War at Vitoria and at the hands of the seventh coalition at Waterloo. The wars resulted in the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and sowed the seeds of nationalism that would lead to the consolidations of Germany and Italy later in the century.

Meanwhile, the global Spanish Empire began to unravel as French occupation of Spain weakened Spain's hold over its colonies, providing an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America. As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century, thus beginning Pax Britannica. An early candidate is 9 November , the date of Bonaparte's coup seizing power in France.

However, the most common date is 18 May , when renewed war broke out between Britain and France, ending the one-year-old Peace of Amiens, the only period of general peace in Europe between and Most actual fighting ceased following Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June , although skirmishing continued as late as 3 July at the Battle of Issy.

The Second Treaty of Paris officially ended the wars on 20 November Officers combat sword by Prosser of London. A superb quality officer's sword of one of the great and famous British Rifles Regiments.

In super condition for age with some great original cutlers combat repairs, to combat damage, beautifully executed with consumate skill, likely in Prossers workshop itself. These honourable battle scars, excellently restored, actually increase its value and historical interest. It demonstrates two salient points, a] the officer must have been engaged in considerable combat service, and, b] he thought greatly of this swords value to him in order to expend great cost in order to achieve near invisible professional repairs.

One to the scabbard outer curved edge, and another at the arch of the knucklebow. Another design was quickly created based on the highly popular Light Dragoon officers sword, but with a shorter and more curved blade. This is the pattern of British Officer's sword carried by gentlemen who relished the idea of combat, but found the standard Infantry pattern sword too light for good combat. The light infantry regiments were made up of officers exactly of that mettle.

The purpose of the rifles light infantry regiments was to work as skirmishers. The riflemen and officers were trained to work in open order and be able to think for themselves. They were to operate in pairs and make best use of natural cover from which to harass the enemy with accurately aimed shots as opposed to releasing a mass volley, which was the orthodoxy of the day.

The riflemen of the 95th were dressed in distinctive dark green uniforms, as opposed to the bright red coats of the British Line Infantry regiments. The standard British infantry and light infantry regiments fought in all campaigns during the Napoleonic Wars, seeing sea-service at the Battle of Copenhagen, engaging in most major battles during the Peninsular War in Spain, forming the rearguard for the British armies retreat to Corunna, serving as an expeditionary force to America in the War of , and holding their positions against tremendous odds at the Battle of Waterloo.

The sword was used, in combat, in some of the greatest and most formidable battles ever fought by the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe the Peninsular Campaign and Waterloo. This is a very attractive sword indeed and highly desirable, especially for devotees of the earliest era of the British Rifle Regiments, such as the 95th and the 60th. As a footnote, in Bernard Cornwall's books of 'Sharpe of the 95th', this is the Sabre Major Sharpe would have carried if he hadn't used the Heavy Cavalry Pattern Troopers Sword, given to him in the story in the first novel.

Overall this battle cum dress sword is in very good order and quite stunning, with defensive sword impact marks to one main side of the scabbard. Some thirty-four regiments of fencible cavalry regiments were raised in and , in response to an invasion scare. At the same time, a large number of troops of volunteer cavalry were raised on a county level, consisting of local gentry and yeoman farmers; from the latter they took the description yeomanry.

These troops formed into yeomanry regiments, organised broadly by county, around ; their history thereafter is complex, with many disbanding, reforming, and changing title intermittently. However, most remained in existence throughout the nineteenth century, seeing occasional service quelling riots and helping to maintain public order.

The founder of the dynasty of barrel makers was the legendary Lazarino Cominazzo, first recorded in the accouints of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, for , as Lazari[no] da Gardo[ne]. The most gifted of them in the second half of the 17th century was Fortunato Cominazzo , who signed himself as Lazarino Cominazzo and was noted for the extreme lightness of his barrels. Unfortunately, as a Brescian chronicle records: On 29 October there was great trouble and revolution in the district of Gardone, Val Trompia, in the course of which both quarrels and murders frequently took place.

Many members of the family lost their lives at the same time, while others fled the area only to return in Due to his fame other makers inscribed his name to their barrels in order to elevate their pistols to his esteemed level. Very nice working order and fine condition for age. Embossed steel cup with acanthus leaf scrolling and left and right hand gadrooning, rolled scroll edging. Long spiral writhen quillons. Wire twist grip with elaborate wire binding.

Compressed, cut, cushion shaped pommel. Blade 32 inches long. Made in the 19th century. Removed knuckle bow in it's working life.

A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two individuals, with matched weapons in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe, with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, and continued into the modern period 19th to early 20th centuries especially among military officers. During the 17th and 18th centuries and earlier , duels were mostly fought with swords the rapier, later the smallsword , but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more commonly fought using pistols; fencing and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century.

The duel was based on a code of honour. Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honour by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, and as such the tradition of duelling was originally reserved for the male members of nobility; however, in the modern era it extended to those of the upper classes generally.

On rare occasions, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women; these were sometimes known as petticoat duels. Legislation against duelling goes back to the medieval period. The Fourth Council of the Lateran outlawed duels,mnand civil legislation in the Holy Roman Empire against duelling was passed in the wake of the Thirty Years' War. From the early 17th century, duels became illegal in the countries where they were practiced.

Dueling largely fell out of favor in England by the midth century and in Continental Europe by the turn of the 20th century. Dueling declined in the Eastern United States in the 19th century and by the time the American Civil War broke out, dueling had begun an irreversible decline, even in the South. Public opinion, not legislation, caused the change. Iron combat axe head of iconic backswept form with elongated rectangular socket mount, on likely a later haft.

His reign lasted for 49 years from until his death in Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and during his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, ruling over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, and he ruled over a population estimated to be over million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of more than ten times that of his contemporary King Louis XIV of France, around 39 million pounds almost 3 billion rupees in Under his reign, India surpassed China to become the world's largest economy, nearly a quarter of world GDP in Aurangzeb is considered one of India's most controversial kings.

Some historians argue that his policies abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his destruction of Hindu temples and execution of a Sikh guru, while other historians question this, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated and were politically motivated, and noting that he built more temples than he destroyed, also destroyed Islamic mosques, paid for the maintenance of temples, employed significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, and opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims.

It was at the end of his reign that the downfall of the Mughal Empire began. Rebellions and wars eventually led to the exhaustion of the imperial Mughal treasury and army. He was a strong-handed authoritarian ruler, and following his death the expansionary period of the Mughal Empire came to an end.

Nevertheless, the contiguous territory of the Mughal Empire still remained intact more or less until the reign of Muhammad Shah. The practice was common up to the 20th century and may still be practised in isolated Naga tribes of Burma. Many of the Naga warriors still bear the marks tattoos and others of a successful headhunt. The simple wood handle is wrapped with basketry towards the blade. Differential corrosion has disclosed the blade to have a piled structure. The single edged blade, with a slightly convex curved edge, is illustrated edge up.

The flat face of the blade is shown in the full length view and in the blade detail photograph; the side of the blade shown in the detail photograph of the handle has an indistinct bevel, occupying about two-fifths of the blade's width, where the blade thins to form the edge.

Serpentine lamination to the blade. One photo is of a Kachin villager wearing a near identical sword-dao photographed with Lt. A Naga is laying out his family skull trophies, a tree of Naga skulls in a national museum, and the last photo is of Naga tribesmen in All for information only.

Painted in faded pale Russian blue-grey. Said, from family history, to have been used by an officer of the 17th Lancers who acquired it from various kit captured from a Russian baggage train. The British officer then used it for his gun case and military kit during this campaign, and later by his sons. The last picture shows the bottom rear strap loops for mounting the trunk on the rear of a horse drawn baggage coach.

Adapted with a turned walnut handle to create a hand held, thrusting sword, ideal for close combat action without it's rifle. Possibly for use in conjunction with a pistol. An ingenious and effective method of creating a hand effective bayonet that without such a fitting would be a redundant weapon without it's rifle to affix to. A beautiful flask but non working action due to spring. The most unique feature of their design was the boxlock mechanism. Unlike most firearms which have the hammer located off to the side of the pistol, a boxlock pistol had the hammer located directly on top of the pistol.

While the hammer obstructed the aim of the user, this system had the advantage of making the gun more compact and concealable than other pistols. The first boxlock pistols were flintlock and where later made in percussion lock. Unlike modern firearms, these pistols were not mass produced, but were hand made in gunsmith's workshops.

Spring lacking, opening to seam. Priced for decoration only. The tabar also called tabarzin, which means "saddle axe" is a type of battle axe. The term tabar is used for axes originating from the Ottoman Empire, Persia, Armenia, India and surrounding countries and cultures. As a loanword taken through Iranian Scythian, the word tabar is also used in most Slavic languages as the word for axe.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the tabar battle axe was a standard weapon of the mounted warriors of India, Afghanistan and what is now Pakistan. Made entirely of metal or with a wood haft, it had a strongly curved blade and a hammer-headed poll and was often decorated with scroll work. Sometimes a small knife was inserted in the tabar's hollow haft. Koftgari is the Indian form of damascening which closely resembles the damascening found in Persia and Syria.

The inlay process begins after the piece is moulded and fully formed. The intended design is engraved into the base metal and fine gold or silver wire is then hammered into the grooves.

The base metal is always a hard metal, either steel, iron or bronze, and the inlay a soft metal, either gold or silver. This combination prevents the base from deforming when the wire inlay is hammered into the surface and results in the inlaid areas being well defined and of sharp appearance.

Swords, shield and armour were often decorated in koftgari work and domestic items such as boxes and betel containers, were also made. A 19th Century Indo Persian Saif [Shamshir] Traces of silver inlay to the steel hilt and a finely made sword of around years old. The word has been translated through many languages to end at scimitar. Turkic Ghilman slave-soldiers serving under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates introduced "kilij" type sabers to all of the other Middle Eastern cultures.

Previously, Arabs and Persians used straight-bladed swords such as the Indo-Persian khanda and earlier types of the Arab saif, takoba and kaskara. During Islamization of the Turks, the kilij became more and more popular in the? When the Seljuk Empire invaded Persia and became the first Turkic Muslim political power in Western Asia, kilij became the dominant sword form.

The Arabic word is ultimately derived from the ancient Greek xiphos, but it is not necessarily a direct loan from the Greek, it may have entered Arabic from another source, as both saif and xiphos go back to an old Bronze Age Wanderwort of the eastern Mediterranean, of unknown ultimate origin. Burton derives both words from the Egyptian sfet. The English term scimitar is attested from the midth century, derives from either the Middle French cimeterre 15th century or from the Italian scimitarra.

The ultimate source of these terms is unknown. Perhaps they are corruptions of the Persian shamshir, but the OED finds this explanation "unsatisfactory". They were well known as manufacturers of Pewterware, Electroplated Britannia metal Silverware and Electroplated nickel silver.

Their products included hundreds of items for use in the kitchen e. They were also famous for their sporting trophies. Two of the most well-known are the Hales Trophy commissioned in sometimes called the Blue Riband though this really refers to the pendant flown by the sailing ship currently holding the record for the fastest crossing of the Atlantic.

The trophy was then held by the owners of that ship. The other great trophy is the one presented to the winner of the American Masters Golf tournament held annually in Augusta Georgia. This trophy is a scale model of the clubhouse made in and contains troy ounces of silver.

A 19th Century Medievil Style Knightly Sword 13thth Century style, but made in the Victorian era, most probably as a faithful representation and display piece for a country estate.

In the early 19th century Sir Walter Scott's novels created a great resurgence in the interest in romantic Knightly tales of derring do and chivalry, and this was strongly followed in architecture at the time. To reflect the interest, numerous great castles and gothic mansions were built, and many were furnished with Knightly Armour and Weaponry such as this. A 19th Century Short Sword With Brass Hilt and Steel Blade A strong gladius type short sword of stout proportions, likely Continental, probably 's but an element of mystery as to it's country of origin.

Possibly from a smaller German state or Grand Duchy. A 19th Century Silver North African Jambiya Koummya With Rope Mount Two ring mounting with beautiful and finely scroll engraved panelled silver front decoration and engraved brass reverse side. The koummya is the characteristic traditional dagger of the Berber and Arabic peoples of Morocco. Stone classifies these as being one localized variant of the Arabic jambiya, and the contoured handles, curved double-edged blades and exaggeratedly upturned scabbard tips are all features consistent with such an interpretation.

In the context of the traditional regional manner of dress, the koummya is worn visibly at the left side, generally about at the level of the waist and is suspended vertically, with the scabbard tip forward, by a long woolen baldric, attached at either end to one of the two scabbard rings, and worn crossing in front and back of the torso and over the right shoulder.

A much greater diversity in forms and decoration exists than is represented by the examples presented here and presumably such features could be used to place particular examples geographically and temporally. Koummya blades are curved and double edged with the portion nearer the hilt remaining relatively straight while the curvature becomes pronounced in the half towards the tip. The length of the blade which is beveled and sharpened is longer along the concave side than along the opposite convex side.

Blade thickness tapers from the base of the blade, where it is thickest, to the tip. While the edge bevels may give the blade a flattened diamond or lenticular cross-section towards the tip, the cross-section is rectangular at the forte. These blades are characteristically relatively thin and utilitarian and the presence of fullers or ridges is not typical.

A Battle of Trafalgar Period Pattern Officers Sword Coverted to a Dirk Although officially known as the Pattern, Royal Navy Officer's sword, they were actually used from the end of the 18th century [from around the 's] right through the Napoleonic Wars era. It has a traditional very nice quality cast relief fouled anchor langet, and a somewhat shortened blade and the knuckle bow removed.

Carved ebony grip with small losses at the pommel area, bound with original triple wire copper binding. Blade shows nice traces though feint of traditional naval etching. So called midshipman's dirks [that were in fact used by officers as well] were usually custom made by sword cutlers for officers uniform tailors and outfitters, but, they could also be made on board, in the field of battle so to speak, by the ship's armourer utilising a battle damaged officers combat sword.

This is one of those very such sword-dirks. The Franco-Spanish fleet lost twenty-two ships, without a single British vessel being lost.

It was the most decisive naval battle of the war, conclusively ending French plans to invade England. The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the eighteenth century and was achieved in part through Nelson's departure from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy. This involved engaging an enemy fleet in a single line of battle parallel to the enemy to facilitate signalling in battle and disengagement, and to maximise fields of fire and target areas.

Nelson instead divided his smaller force into two columns directed perpendicularly against the enemy fleet, with decisive results. Nelson was shot by a French musketeer during the battle and died shortly after, becoming one of Britain's greatest war heroes.

Villeneuve was captured along with his ship Bucentaure. Admiral Federico Gravina, the senior Spanish flag officer, escaped with the remnant of the fleet and succumbed months later to wounds sustained during the battle. Villeneuve attended Nelson's funeral while a captive on parole in Britain. No scabbard Overall Battle damaged and a fabulous artifact of 17th century warfare.

With later haft [not shown] A partizan also partisan is a type of polearm that was used in Europe in the Middle Ages. It consisted of a spearhead mounted on a long shaft, usually wooden, with protrusions on the sides which aided in parrying sword thrusts. From the era of the Italian Wars of Castro.

They were a series of conflicts during the midth century revolving around the ancient city of Castro located in present-day Lazio, Italy , which eventually resulted in the city's destruction on 2 September A Beautiful Blue and Gilt Officer's Light Dragoon Sabre With brass combat scabbard, brass hilt, carved bone grip and traditional Light Dragoon form blade, used in the Waterloo era, with wide swollen tip.

The blue and gilt is good but has some wear and fading due to to use. Officers both regular and volunteers carried fighting swords very similar in form to those of the trooper version, though they tended to be lighter in weight and show evidence of higher levels of finish and workmanship. Officers stationed in India sometimes had the hilts and scabbards of their swords silvered as a protection against the high humidity of the Monsoon season. Unlike the officers of the heavy cavalry, light cavalry officers did not have a pattern dress sword.

As a result of this there were many swords made which copied elements of the pattern design but incorporated a high degree of decoration, such as blue and gilt or frost-etched blades, and gilt-bronze hilts such as this one. The mounted swordsmanship training of the British emphasised the cut, at the face for maiming or killing, or at the arms to disable. This left masses of mutilated or disabled troops; the French, in contrast, favoured the thrust, which gave cleaner kills.

A cut with the LC sabre was, however, perfectly capable of killing outright, as was recorded by George Farmer of the 11th Regiment of Light Dragoons, who was involved in a skirmish on the Guadiana River in , during the Peninsular War: I firmly believe that Wilson died on the instant yet, though he felt the sword in its progress, he, with characteristic self-command, kept his eye on the enemy in his front; and, raising himself in his stirrups, let fall upon the Frenchman's head such a blow, that brass and skull parted before it, and the man's head was cloven asunder to the chin.

It was the most tremendous blow I ever beheld struck; and both he who gave, and his opponent who received it, dropped dead together. The brass helmet was afterwards examined by order of a French officer, who, as well as myself, was astonished at the exploit; and the cut was found to be as clean as if the sword had gone through a turnip, not so much as a dint being left on either side of it" The blade is remembered today as one of the best of its time and has been described as the finest cutting sword ever manufactured in quantity.

Officers of the famous 95th Rifles, other light infantry regiments and the "flank" companies of line regiments adopted swords with an identical hilt to the light cavalry sabre, but with a lighter and shorter blade. The sabre was also copied by the Prussians; indeed, some Imperial German troops were equipped with almost identical swords, but smaller, into the First World War.

A Beautiful 17th Cent. From the early Qing dynasty that followed the late Ming. A most rare and original antique sword, and what a find! Old original Chinese antique arms very rarely survive, and now are generally only to be seen in the biggest and best museums.

The fittings are very much in the form popular in the south to eastern region of the old Chinese empire in the Xizang province. This sword is a textbook representative example of the familiar Chinese form, well made and of good quality. The blade has traces still visible of the prominent hairpin pattern, the hallmark of traditional Sino-Tibetan blades, consisting of seven dark lines alternating with six light lines, caused by the different types of iron that were combined during the forging process.

This was formed by combining harder and softer iron, referred to as "male iron" and "female iron" in traditional Tibetan texts, which was folded, nested together, and forged into one piece in a blade-making technique called pattern welding. The hilts are often made of engraved silver set with coral or turquoise, or in some rare instances are intricately chiseled and pierced in iron that is damascened in gold and silver.

The different styles of swords that were once found in China and Tibet can be distinguished by several basic features, which include the type of blade, the form of hilt, the type of scabbard, and how the sword was designed to be worn. Traditional Tibetan texts divide swords into five principal types, each of which has a main subtype, for a total of ten basic types. These are in turn subdivided into dozens of further subtypes, many of which may, however, reflect legends and literary conventions rather than actual sword forms.

Armour and weapons are certainly not among the images usually called to mind when considering the art or culture of Tibet, which is closely identified with the pacifism and deep spirituality of the Dalai Lama and with the compassionate nature of Tibetan Buddhism.

However, this seeming paradox resolves itself when seen in the context of Tibetan history, which includes regular and extended periods of intense military activity from the seventh to the mid-twentieth century. Some excellent examples of Tibetan arms and armour can be found in museum collections today Other types were preserved for ceremonial occasions, the most important of which was the Great Prayer Festival, a month-long event held annually in the Tibetan capital of Lhasa.

Historical armour and weapons were also preserved due to the long-standing tradition of placing votive arms in monasteries and temples, where they are kept in special chapels, known as gonkhang mgon khang , and dedicated to the service of guardian deities. Because his two predecessors received the title posthumously, Sonam is called the Third Dalai Lama.

He becomes both a great scholar and an able administrator, earning the nickname "the Great Fifth. For a dozen years, news of his death is hidden from the Chinese Qing emperor Kangxi by the regent Sangye Gyatso. In , after years of unrest, the Chinese emperor finally installs the Seventh Dalai Lama and proclaims Tibet a Chinese protectorate. Although there are representatives of the Manchus in Tibet, the region is largely left to function independently and does so for the next years.

Toward the end of the fifteenth century, Nepal is divided between the three sons of King Jayayakshamalla into three kingdoms: Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Patan. Kathmandu becomes the capital of the Gorkha kingdom shortly thereafter. Currently in one of the worlds greatest museums, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, there is an exhibition of Chinese Tibetan arms and armour. Good regimental badge with copper crown, replacement red horsehair plume. The Shropshire Yeomanry dates its origins to the French wars of Volunteer cavalry units were raised throughout the country, with Shropshire raising many varied and exotic corps - the Brimstree Loyal Legion, the Pimhill Light Horse, the Oswestry Rangers and others.

In , the Shrewsbury Y. These in turn amalgamated in to form the Shropshire Yeomanry Cavalry. They date their origins to the raising of the Wellington Troop in The regiment's first active service came during the South African War, when volunteers served in the 13th Shropshire Company of the 5th Battalion, Imperial Yeomanry.

This helmet is complete with it's original, [or more] years old Victorian plume, but the plume is in very poor condition [not shown]. Overall light surface wear denting and surface fracture to the rear [see photos]. A Beautiful 18th Century Long Holster Flintlock of the Mediterranean Finely carved walnut stock, long holster barrel beautifully chisseled and inlaid with silver.

Silver buttcap, traditional early banana shaped lock. An Italianate style flintlock, made in the area of the Mediterranean, used throughout Europe in the 18th and early 19th century in the Napoelonic Wars and throughout the Ottoman Empire. This is exactly the type of flintlock one sees, and in fact expects to see, in all the old Hollywood 'Pirate' films. A beautifully sprauncy sidearm, with long flared barrel. This is an original, honest and impressive antique flintlock that rekindles the little boy in all of us who once dreamt of being Errol Flynn, Swash-Buckling across the Spanish Maine under the Jolly Roger.

This super piece may very well have seen service with one of the old Corsairs of the Barbary Coast, in a tall masted Galleon, slipping it's way down the coast of the Americas, to find it's way home to Port Royal, or some other nefarious port of call in the Caribbean. It is exactly the very form of weapon that was in use in the days of the Caribbean pirates and privateers, as their were no regular patterns of course. The buttcap has seen damage when used as a skull crusher and had a field repair to the ears.

The Tulwar had historically been the quintessential combat sword used by Sikhs as their sacred kirpan due to its superior handling while mounted on horseback. With a curved blade optimized for cutting and slashing with sweeping cuts delivered from the shoulder by a horseman the curved blade of the tulwar could strike repeated blows without the danger of the blade getting stuck in bone or armour.

It allowed for fierce slashing on all sides cutting through enemy formations while mounted on horseback. With its curved blade the point of the sword cannot be very effectively used for thrusting and the Tulwars defensive capabilities are limited. In this circumstance defence was taken up by using the shield Dhal in tandem with the Tulwar as an integral duo on the battlefield. The blade was firmly attached to the hilt of the Tulwar commonly using a heated paste of lac or red dye from the papal tree which when it hardened provided a solid and effective adhesive between the two parts of the sword.

The hilt of the Tulwar has a button on top and a circular dished pommel disk featuring the koftgari design patterns of flowers in pure hammered gold. The grip of the Tulwar below the pommel disk narrows at the top and bottom while bulging out in the middle. The crossguard between the grip and the blade features two short but very thick rounded quillions. The index finger could be wrapped around a quillion rather than the grip providing the swordsman with extra maneuverability of the sword.

Some Tulwars feature a knuckle guard extending from the quillion to the pommel disk, while others do not, both styles of Tulwars were commonly used by Sikhs.

Guru Hargobind, the 6th Sikh Guru is said to have always carried two Tulwars representing his temporal and spiritual authority. They both had gold onlaid hilts. I small body dent.

Good spring action to the multi measure spout. Early 19th century Fiji battle club. Excellent condition with fabulous natural patina. So called because of their resemblance to the butt of a gun, they are actually have no relation to rifles or muskets, and predate their appearance.

This Gatawaka or gunstock club is around It could be described as a dueling club as it could be used to parry, and then bring the bladed end down on its victim. Another trick the Fijians would use is to pin them down by the neck with the crook of the club and then snap.

These clubs are made from the buttress roots of an uprooted sapling that has been planted and deliberately and carefully trained to produce the desired shape. The heavy two handed war club in all its various forms is regarded as being the favourite arm of the Fijian warrior. To slay an enemy with a club brought the warrior more prestige than to kill with any other weapon.

A tally of kills made with a club was often kept by a means of nicks or notches on the head or handle, by boring small holes in the shaft. The role of the craftsman in Fijian culture was a much-valued skill and the woodcraftsmen in Fiji formed a distinct group in the community, with their own chiefs and specialists in making various items. Clubs were lovingly crafted and some clubs required years to make. According to Rod Ewins, "This type of club is notable for the cheeks that were pounded with rocks while the tree was growing.

The ridges running across the cheeks are typical. It is called the Tere Tere after the frill of an iguana. Small defensive wood cut in the haft midsection. A portrait bust of Graf von Zeppelin With gold reflief border.

Pre WW1 early 20th Century. Royal Vienna mark in underglazed blue. The Harvey surname was one of the marks of renown Birmingham maker, Samuel Harvey, , who supplied many basket hilted swords to the British Crown, mostly for use by Highland troops. His more common mark was a running wolf, his other marks could be Harvey or S.

The fabulous basket hilt has the large oval ring insert, for the holding of the horses reins while gripping the sword when riding to battle, and part of the original buff hide basket liner. Wire bound fishskin grip, discoid pommel.

At the time when the Macdonald regiments were crumbling and fleeing the field, Stuart seems to have been rallying Perth's and Glenbuchat's regiments when O'Sullivan rode up to Captain Shea who commanded Stuart's bodyguard: Shea then led Stuart from the field along with Perth's and Glenbuchat's regiments.

From this point on the fleeing Jacobite forces were split into two groups: The result was that they were a perfect target for the government dragoons. The basket hilted sword of this very form and character were used by British heavy dragoons for several decades, importantly in the American Revolutionary war. There is a near identical sword by Harvey, bearing the same form of maker mark and crown GR in a collection of American War of Independence weaponry featured in "Swords and Blades of the American Revolution" by George C.

Page sword s The shortage of cavalry in the Revolutionary War was a major drawback for the British. A strong cavalry presence at battles like Long Island and Brandywine could have enabled the British to encircle the Americans and prevent their retreat. One of the earliest basket-hilted swords was recovered from the wreck of the Mary Rose, an English warship lost in Before the find, the earliest positive dating had been two swords from around the time of the English Civil War.

At first the wire guard was a simple design but as time passed it became increasingly sculpted and ornate. During the 18th century, the fashion of duelling in Europe focused on the lighter smallsword, and fencing with the broadsword came to be seen as a speciality of Scotland. A number of fencing manuals teaching fencing with the Scottish broadsword were published throughout the 18th century. Portraits from the time show this very sword as worn.

The scene is beautifully done and highly intricate. It depicts a brick built house, within a garden of pine trees and a great tree. The scene also has mounted huntsmen, coming past the house, with whips and chasing a fox or a wolf with hounds. There is also a walking, pipe smoking figure, and a man holding an iron pronged capture device, and a dog walking from a kennel.

All the men are wearing Shakos. Very similar to the French Royal and Imperial style and very possibly Austrian. Percussion conversion action to enhance it's performance and to increase it's working life into the 19th century.

The Austrian cavalry consisted of cuirassiers, dragoons, chevaulegeres light dragoons , hussars and uhlans. They were excellent swordsman and horsemen, well-trained and well-mounted and enjoyed great reputation in Europe.

For French cavalry officer, de Brack, the Hungarian hussars were some of "the best European cavalry. Anoher British observer described their cuirassiers in in Paris as "outstanding". According to "The Armies of Europe": The heavy or "German" cavalry, consisting of Germans and Bohemians is well horsed, well armed, and always efficient. The battle was a tactical masterpiece of the same stature as the ancient battles of Gaugamela and Cannae, in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.

Napoleon's words to his troops after the battle were full of praise: Je suis content de vous Soldiers! I am pleased with you. The Emperor provided two million golden francs to the higher officers and francs to each soldier, with large pensions for the widows of the fallen. Orphaned children were adopted by Napoleon personally and were allowed to add "Napoleon" to their baptismal and family names.

This battle is one of four that Napoleon never awarded a victory title, the others being Marengo, Jena and Friedland. The more regular type we are used to seeing today were used, but this most scarce high quality bronze 'shoe-form' type is very rarely seen to survive.

Peasants in Qing China were not permitted to travel and certainly never on horseback. The stirrup was invented in China in the first few centuries AD and spread westward through the nomadic peoples of Central Eurasia. Some argue that the stirrup was one of the basic tools used to create and spread modern civilization, possibly as important as the wheel or printing press.

The stirrup, which gives greater stability to a rider, has been described as one of the most significant inventions in the history of warfare, prior to gunpowder. As a tool allowing expanded use of horses in warfare, the stirrup is often called the third revolutionary step in equipment, after the chariot and the saddle. The basic tactics of mounted warfare were significantly altered by the stirrup.

A rider supported by stirrups was less likely to fall off while fighting, and could deliver a blow with a weapon that more fully employed the weight and momentum of horse and rider. Among other advantages, stirrups provided greater balance and support to the rider, which allowed the knight to use a sword more efficiently without falling, especially against infantry adversaries. The Qing [or Ching] dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Qing Empire by itself or the Manchu dynasty by foreigners, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in and ruling China from to with a brief, abortive restoration in It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China.

The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China", and referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu Dulimbai means "central" or "middle," gurun means "nation" or "state".

The emperors equated the lands of the Qing state including present-day Northeast China, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, and rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas. The Qing emperors proclaimed that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China".

They used both "China" and "Qing" to refer to their state in official documents, international treaties as the Qing was known internationally as "China" or the "Chinese Empire" and foreign affairs, and "Chinese language" Dulimbai gurun I bithe included Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and "Chinese people" referred to all subjects of the empire.

In the Chinese-language versions of its treaties and its maps of the world, the Qing government used "Qing" and "China" interchangeably. A Beautiful Islamic 19th Century Shamshir Sabre With Islamic Text Just returned from a week and 40 hours of intensive expert conservation to clean and preserve the steel wood and leather and conserve the gold inlay to the blade, with an Islamic cartouch, numerous decorative features and the seal of Suleiman with script inlaid.

Somewhat in the form of a kilij but with a more elegant slender blade that takes it more in to shamshir territory, although often either name can be used to describe it. In the gallery is beautiful painting the type of person as would have a sword of this form. The painting refers to the cycle of works created by the artist under the impression of traveling to Egypt, Palestine and Turkey.

Mamelukes were soldiers from the personal guard of the Arab caliphs. During the reign of Napoleon, a detachment of Mamelukes dressed in oriental costumes was introduced into the Imperial Guard. While the curve of the blade is largely parabolic, the limb of the curve terminating in the hilt is a few inches longer and the blade straightens as the hilt is approached.

This asymmetry presents a challenge for the scabbard maker. When first inserted, the spine of the blade will glide smoothly along the back edge of the scabbard, however, once the blade is three quarters inserted, the cutting edge will begin to shift toward the opposite side of the scabbard mouth. Turkish scabbards and some Arab scabbards are narrower, employing a slot extending from the spine end of the scabbard mouth for short distance to deal with the asymmetry.

Shamshir blades will often include one or more of the following inscriptions: The most celebrated swordsmith to create shamshirs, Assadullah or: Contemporary illustrations most often show these swords being worn within scabbards, suspended horizontally to diagonally and edge down, at the wearer's left side. Though the deeply curved blades are clearly adapted for the draw cut at considerable expense to the potential for thrusting use, these swords are known to have been carried by dismounted as well as mounted warriors.

Shamshirs are usually regarded as being optimized for mounted combat at close quarters and such use is supported by period illustrations and writings. A sarpa lumarka wavy blade with a gold Naga [snake] in sangkelat [13 waves, or lok]. Ladrang form of wrangka hilt crosspiece [boat form] of a simply stunning wood, which may be Javan pelet.

In Java, the metal sleeve is called pendokbunton, which is a full metal sleeve. The keris is considered a magical weapon, filled with great spiritual power.

The keris is replete with the totems of Malay-Indonesian culture of hindu and islam. The blade is a mixture of meteoric steel and nickel According to traditional Javanese kejawen, kris contain all the intrinsic elements of nature: All these elements are present during the forging of kris.

Earth is metal forged by fire being blown by pumped wind, and water to cool down the metal. In Bali, the kris is associated with the n? Some kris have a naga or serpent head carved near the base with the body and tail following the curves of the blade to the tip. A wavy kris is thus a naga in motion, aggressive and alive; a straight blade is one at rest, its power dormant but ready to come into action.

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